Publications

Below you can find a list of the most important publications by members of our research team. A full list of publications of each member features on their individual member profiles.

Political Representation

  • AKACHAR, Soumia (2016) 'Stuck between islamophobia and homophobia: applying intersectionality to understanding the position of gay Muslim identities in the Netherlands,' Journal of Diversity and Gender Studies, 2(1-2), 171-185.
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    not available
  • ERZEEL, Silvia & CELIS, Karen (2016) 'Political parties, ideology and the substantive representation of women,' Party Politics, 22(5), 576-586.
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    The recent finding that right-wing parties increasingly make efforts to integrate women’s concerns raises questions as to whether ideology still counts as a reliable indicator for women’s substantive representation and how different party contexts shape opportunities for the articulation of women’s interests. This article therefore critically reassesses how ideology defines the opportunities for women’s substantive representation, based on a comparative study of legislators’ acting on behalf of women in 14 European countries. We argue that ideology still offers an important explanation for women’s substantive representation, but that the link between the two should be conceptualized as complex rather than straightforward. The role of ideology is best understood if scholars (1) adopt an understanding of ‘ideology’ that allows for more variation and is conceptually different from ‘party’, (2) differentiate between gendered interests and feminist interests and (3) understand the impact of ideology as both direct and mediated.
  • SEVERS, Eline, CELIS, Karen & ERZEEL, Silvia (2016) 'Power, privilege and disadvantage: intersectionality theory and representation,' Politics, 36(4), 346-354.
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    This article critically reviews the extant literature on social group representation and clarifies the advantages of intersectionality theory for studying political representation. It argues that the merit of intersectionality theory can be found in its ontology of power. Intersectionality theory is founded on a relational conception of political power that locates the constitution of power relations within social interactions, such as political representation. As such, intersectionality theory pushes scholarship beyond studying representation inequalities – that are linked to presumably stable societal positions – to also consider the ways in which political representation (re)creates positions of privilege and disadvantage.
  • CELIS, Karen & ERZEEL, Silvia (2015) 'Beyond the usual suspects: non-left, male and non-feminist MPs and the substantive representation of women,' Government and Opposition, 50(1), 45-64.
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    The focus on female MPs and leftist and feminist issues in traditional studies of women’s substantive representation has supported the overall conclusion that women, feminists and left-wing parties promote women’s interests in parliament. But our analysis of the ‘critical actors’ in women’s substantive representation in 10 European countries confirms this finding only to a certain extent. Our inductive research design reveals an important group of less obvious actors: non-left, non- feminist and male MPs. That they speak out on behalf of women points to the necessity of revisiting our theories on women’s substantive representation.
  • TANASESCU, Mihnea (2015) Environment, political representation, and the challenge of rights: speaking for nature. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 216 p.
    category: Book
    Tanasescu examines the rights of nature in terms of its constituent parts. Besides offering a thorough theoretical grounding, the book gives a first detailed overview of the actual cases of rights for nature so far. This is the first comprehensive treatment of the rights of nature to date, both analytically and in terms of actual cases.
  • SEVERS, Eline, CELIS, Karen & Petra Meier (2015) 'The indirectness of political representation: a blessing or a concern? A study of the conceptions of members of the Flemish regional parliament,' Parliamentary Affairs, 68(3), 616-637.
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    This article situates itself within ongoing scholarly debates on the conditions of democratic representation. It, more precisely, posits traditional concerns for the ‘indirectness’ of political representation—that is the possibility for citizens’ alienation and exclusion from decision-making—against contemporary accounts that conceive of such ‘indirectness’ as quintessential to democracy; mobilising citizens’ judgement and, potentially, drawing them into the decision-making process and making it more inclusive. Juxtaposing these two theoretical accounts with the practice of representation, this article researches—based on 70 semi-structured interviews with members of the Flemish regional parliament—how representatives themselves conceive of representation and deal with its indirectness.
  • ERZEEL, Silvia, CALUWAERTS, Didier & CELIS, Karen (2014) From Agency to Institutions and Back: Comparing Legislator’s Acting on Behalf of Women in Parliamentary Democracies, in Deschouwer, K. & Depauw, S. (eds.) Representing the People. A Survey among Members of State-Wide and Sub-State Parliaments, Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 66-86.
    category: Book Chapter
    No Abstract.
  • SEVERS, Eline (2012) 'Substantive representation through a claims-making lens: A strategy for the identification and analysis of substantive claims,' Representation, 48(2), 169-182.
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    Within the scholarship on substantive representation, representation is increasingly perceived in terms of ‘claiming to speak for’ the represented. Although this constructivist turn to substantive representation creates promising avenues for further research, it makes it ever more difficult to set processes of representation apart from other, more generic, forms of communication. This article seeks to redress this situation in two ways: firstly, by introducing the concept of ‘substantive claims’ as a more apt translation of substantive representation into the ‘claims-making’ paradigm; and secondly, by developing an interpretive schema which allows for identifying and analysing these substantive claims.

Electoral Politics

  • ANDRé, Audrey, DEPAUW, Sam & DESCHOUWER, Kris (2016) 'State structure and political representation: comparing the views of state-wide and sub-state legislators across 14 countries,' European Journal of Political Research, 55(4), 866-884.
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    How the recent creation, re-invention or reinforcement of regional levels of political decision making across Europe compounds political representation is one of the key issues of contemporary democratic government. Despite growing scholarly interest, the critical question as to whether the regional institutional setting has brought about distinct representational roles among sub-state legislators has yet to be addressed. To advance research in this eld, this study bridges the literature on multilevel politics and legislative studies that to date have developed in isolation. Using innovative survey data from 14 statewide and 56 regional legislatures across Europe, it provides the rst comprehensive test of how the state structure affects a legislator’s views on representation.The results highlight that,relative to l egislators in unitary states and national legislators in multilevel states, legislators at the regional level are more constituency-oriented. Moreover, this heightened responsiveness to constituents at the regional level is not offset by weaker collective representation operating through political parties. Beyond these ndings’ immediate relevance to scholars of federalism/regionalisation and parliaments, they also speak to the wider normative debate about the quality of political representation and public policy.
  • ERZEEL, Silvia & CALUWAERTS, Didier (2015) Is it Gender, Ideology or Resources? Individual-Level Determinants of Preferential Voting for Male or Female Candidates, accepted for publication in Journal of Elections, Public Opinion & Parties
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    No Abstract.
  • BEYENS, Stefanie, P. Lucardie & DESCHOUWER, Kris (2015) 'The life and death of new political parties in the Low Countries,' West European Politics, 39(2), 257-277.
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    Numerous new parties have emerged since voters became less loyal to established political parties. A number of these survived and have been analysed intensely, especially green and radical right parties; many other new parties disappeared and have been neglected by party research. This article analyses the fate of all 30 political parties that entered parliament in the Netherlands or Belgium between 1950 and 2003. Qualitative comparative analysis is used to identify characteristics of both surviving and disappeared new parties. Conditions related to party origin (roots in civil society, organisational newness, initial programmatic profile) are scrutinised, as are conditions pertaining to the party’s developmental process (party organisational strength and the occurrence of defections or party splits). Surviving parties are characterised by strong, rooted organisations that have not suffered defections. Most disappeared parties lacked a strong organisation and roots and have experienced shocks that they could not absorb. Organisational newness makes new parties vulnerable.
  • DESCHOUWER, Kris & DEPAUW, Sam (2014) Representing the people. A survey among members of statewide and substate parliaments, Oxford University Press
    category: Other Article (without peer-review system)
    No Abstract.
  • ANDRé, Audrey & DEPAUW, Sam (2014) 'District magnitude and the personal vote,' Electoral Studies, 35(1), 102-114.
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    In spite of widespread interest in the effects of electoral institutions, research has largely missed, or misspecified, the ‘theoretical link’ tying legislators' behaviour to the rules' formal properties. District magnitude, in particular, can operate through the number of candidates running under the same party label and the number of votes required to win (re)election. Using data from the PARTIREP cross-national legislator survey in 15 European democracies, the article demonstrates that district magnitude is a proxy of different processes in closed-list and open-list systems. The findings contribute to a better understanding of how the mechanical effects of electoral institutions translate into incentives on the part of legislators to cultivate a personal reputation.
  • ANDRé, Audrey, A. Freire & Z. Papp (2014) 'Electoral rules and legislators' personal vote-seeking,' In: K. Deschouwer & S. Depauw (Eds). Representing the People: a Survey among Members of Statewide and Substate Parliaments. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 87-109.
    category: Book Chapter
    not available
  • REUCHAMPS, Min, KAVADIAS, Dimokritos & DESCHOUWER, Kris (2013) Drawing Belgium: Using mental maps to measure territorial conflict, Territory, Politics, Governance, 1(2)
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    no abstract
  • ANDRé, Audrey, DEPAUW, Sam & BEYENS, Stefanie (2013) Party Loyalty and Electoral Dealignment, Party Politics, DOI: 10.1177/1354068813509521
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    No Abstract.
  • ANDRé, Audrey, DEPAUW, Sam & DESCHOUWER, Kris (2012) Legislators’ Local Roots: Disentangling the Effect of District Magnitude, Party Politics, DOI:10.1177/ 1354068812458617
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    No Abstract.

EU Policies and Decision-Making

  • Andreu Casas, DAVESA, Ferran & Mariluz Congosto (2016) "Media coverage of a 'connective action': The interaction between the 15-M movement and the mass media," Revista Española de Investigaciones Sociológicas, 155(1), 73-96.
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    This article uses Twitter messages sent in May 2011 to study the ability of the so-called 15-M movement, a “connective” movement, to place their demands on the media agenda and maintain control over their own discourse. The results show that the activists’ discourse included many issues, although greatest attention was given to three: electoral and party systems, democracy and governance, and civil liberties. Moreover, the study reveals that the media covered all the movement’s issues and that activists maintained their plural discourse throughout the protest. This article contributes to the literature on ‘connective’ social movements, showing that in certain circumstances these movements have the capacity to determine media coverage.
  • DUPONT, Claire (2016) Climate Policy Integration into EU Energy Policy. Progress and Prospects. London: Routledge
    category: Book
    Climate change is a cross-cutting, long-term, global problem that presents policymakers with many challenges in their efforts to respond to the issue. Integrating climate policy objectives into the elaboration and agreement of policy measures in other sectors represents one promising method for ensuring coherent policies that respond adequately to the climate change challenge. This book explores the integration of long-term climate policy objectives into EU energy policy. It engages in-depth empirical analysis on the integration of climate policy objectives into renewable energy policy; energy performance of buildings; and policies in support of natural gas importing infrastructure. The book describes insufficient levels of climate policy integration across these areas to achieve the long-term policy goals. A conceptual framework to find reasons for insufficient integration levels is developed and applied. This book is a valuable resource for students, researchers, academics and policymakers interested in environmental, climate change and energy policy development in the EU, particularly from the perspective of long-term policy challenges. The book adds to scholarly literature on policy integration and EU integration, and contributes to new and developing research about EU decarbonisation.
  • OBERTHüR, Sebastian & DUPONT, Claire (2015) Decarbonization in the European Union: Internal Policies and External Strategies. Houndsmill: Palgrave MacMillan.
    category: Book
    The authors examine how far internal policies in the European Union move towards the objective of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the EU by 80-95 per cent by 2050, and how or whether the EU's 2050 objective to 'decarbonise' could affect the EU's relations with a number of external energy partners.
  • OBERTHüR, Sebastian & DUPONT, Claire (2015) "The European Union," In: Bäckstrand, Karin, and Eva Lövbrand (Eds.) Research Handbook on Climate Governance. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 224-236.
    category: Book Chapter
    no abstract available
  • ROOS, Christof (2015) "EU politics on labour migration: Inclusion versus admission," Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 28(1), 536-553.
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    Two European Union (EU) directives on labour migration were adopted in 2009 and 2011. The EU scheme to attract highly qualified migrants, the so-called ‘Blue Card’ directive of 2009, allows member states broad flexibility in implementation. In contrast, the directive on a single permit for migrant workers and their rights of 2011 is far less flexible. It does significantly reduce the scope for derogations at a national level to a minimum. How can this variance in output be explained? Institutional rules are shown to be a key factor. The involvement of the European Parliament as co-legislator alongside the Council limited member states’ influence on legal outputs. The comparison of policy outputs between the two cases points to differences in actor orientations: rather than seeking to increase labour migration into the EU by defining expansive admission conditions, the common EU policy seeks to include migrant workers by defining their rights.
  • ROOS, Christof & ZAUN, Natascha (2014) "Norms Matter! The role of international norms in EU policies on asylum and immigration," European Journal of Migration and Law, Vol. 16, No. 1, p. 45-68
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    This Article investigates how international norms impact on eu asylum and immigration policy. To this end we scrutinize the assumption that the robustness of international norms indicates the quality of eu integration. Drawing on international norms literature we argue that four characters define an international norms’ robustness: specificity in definition, binding force, coherence with domestic law and international law, and concordant understanding among actors. Our analysis covers three eu policy areas, asylum policy, family reunification policy, and labour migration policy. Across the three areas international norms had varying degrees of robustness at the time of eu negotiations. The findings show that presence and robustness of international norms on asylum or immigration regulation are reflected in eu legislation. Given that there are more robust norms available on questions of status than on reception conditions or asylum procedures, the qualification directive was much easier to agree on than the reception conditions or the asylum procedures directive which were much more characterized by hard bargaining. The international norm, right to family life, was sufficiently robust and was codified in eu law. However, both the international norm and the eu law do not provide for clear admission criteria. On labour migration, robust international norms with regard to equality provisions for migrant workers are mirrored in eu legislation on residence rights of migrants. With regard to conditions of admission, the absence of international norms indicates little to no eu legislation.
  • SHAHIN, Jamal, WOODWARD, Alison & TERZIS, G. (2013) "The impact of the crisis on civil society organizations in the EU: Risks and opportunities," Open Citizenship, Vol. 4, No. 1, p. 12-22
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    no abstract
  • Katja Biedenkopf & DUPONT, Claire (2013) "A toolbox approach to the EU's External Climate Governance," In: A. Boening; J. Kremer; and A. Van Loon (Eds.) Global Power Europe. Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 181-199.
    category: Book Chapter
    no abstract available
  • ROOS, Christof (2013) The EU and Immigration Policies: Cracks in the Walls of Fortress Europe? Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    category: Book
    This book explores how and why the EU and its member states define immigration policies. A comparison of EU negotiations on five EU immigration directives reveals interests of actors in EU integration and whether common policies aim at a restriction or expansion of immigration to the EU.
  • ROOS, Christof (2013) "How to overcome deadlock in EU Immigration Politics," International Migration, 51(6), 67-79.
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    Immigration policy is a very unlikely case for EU integration. EU policy-making is constrained by member states' sovereignty claims and interest heterogeneity. Still, tentative integration towards EU conditions of entry and residence for some immigrant categories can be observed. By using the example of the skilled labour migration directive, the article explains how deadlock in policy-making was overcome. It explores the factors that led to agreement in the EU immigration policy area, from the Commission's first proposal on labour migration in 2001 to its adoption in 2009. Explanations for integration in the policy area are member states' venue shopping the EU level for changing domestic legislation, their interest in locking-in national standards in EU law, and the EU Commission's agenda-framing. Strategic partitioning of policy was also used by actors to overcome deadlock in policy-making. The reframing of policies, by reducing their scope to a few narrowly defined immigrant categories, influenced their adoption. This mechanism was observed in studying the eight years of policy-making leading to the labour migration directive. The longitudinal analysis helps to identify the key dynamics that define this nascent EU policy area.
  • DUPONT, Claire & OBERTHüR, Sebastian (2012) "Insufficient climate policy integration in EU energy policy: the importance of the long-term perspective," Journal of Contemporary European Research , 8(2): 228-247.
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    This article assesses and explains the level of climate policy integration (CPI) in the EU’s energy sector, and challenges the widespread assumption that a high level of CPI has been achieved in this sector. We introduce a conceptualisation of CPI and outline an analytical framework to explain levels of CPI, drawing on environmental Policy Integration (EPI) literature and on theories of European integration. We thus add conceptual value by bringing strands of EPI literature together and situating them in broader theories of European integration. We analyse CPI in two cases of energy policy: the EU’s renewable energy (RE) policy and EU policies on gas pipelines. We argue that even in the relatively climate-friendly RE case, the level of CPI remains insufficient to reach long-term climate policy objectives. CPI has been virtually absent in the EU’s gas import pipeline policy. The lack of CPI may remain hidden without taking a long-term perspective. The explanatory framework helps us in understanding the insufficient levels of CPI and the differences between the cases. We argue that serious consideration of long-term climate objectives in the policy process is fundamental for the occurrence of CPI.

Multi-Level Governance

  • TRAUNER, Florian & Ariadna Ripoll Servent (2016) "The communitarisation of the area of freedom, security and justice: why institutional change does not translate into policy change," Journal of Common Market Studies, 54(6), 1417-1432.
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    This article proposes an explanation as to why institutional change – understood as more competences for the European Union's supranational institutions – has rarely led to policy change in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ). It draws attention to the constraints that newly empowered actors have faced in the wake of introducing the co-decision procedure. If the key principles of a given AFSJ sub-policy – its ‘policy core’ – were defined before institutional change occurred, the Council (as the dominant actor of the early intergovernmental co-operation) has found it easier to prevail in the altered structural environment and to co-opt or sideline actors with competing rationales. The article compares the importance of the new decision-making procedure with two alternative pathways potentially leading to policy change, namely, the power of litigation and the impact of unexpected external events.
  • Jérémy Dodeigne, Pierre Gramme, Min Reuchamps & SINARDET, Dave (2016) "Beyond linguistic and party homogeneity: determinants of Belgian MPs' preferences on federalism and state reform," Party Politics, 22(4), 427-439.
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    Political parties are often thought of as unitary actors that have consistent preferences. This ‘hidden assumption’ means that heterogeneity within parties, and therefore intra-party dynamics, are overlooked in explaining attitudes. When it comes to devolution and federalisation, parties or MPs belonging to the same region are also often implicitly considered to have homogeneous viewpoints and attitudes. Relying on an original survey of MPs carried out during the Belgian political gridlock of 2010–2011, this article uncovers some of the key dimensions of the intra-party dynamics through analysis of MPs’ preferences towards institutional reform in Belgium. Far from being explained along party or community lines, our results demonstrate how MPs’ political and sociological background, national/regional identity, political career, and intercommunity relations strongly shape their preferences.
  • OBERTHüR, Sebastian (2016) "Where to go from Paris? The European Union in climate geopolitics," Global Affairs, 2(2), 119-130.
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    The EU’s strategic re-orientation to coalition and bridge building after the failed Copenhagen Climate Summit in 2009 paved the way for its success in securing the Paris Agreement on climate change in December 2015. This orientation will largely remain relevant in climate geopolitics characterized by multipolarity and a diversification of interests away from a North–South divide, both headed towards growing support for decarbonization. Various fora beyond the multilateral UN negotiations deserve systematic attention as climate governance has become “polycentric”, requiring careful prioritization as well as further enhanced coordination of climate diplomacy across the EU. The EU’s position in climate geopolitics will not least depend on the development of its internal climate and energy policy framework for 2030 and beyond. Advancing decarbonization and fostering low-carbon innovation towards the new climate economy in the EU will help enhance the EU’s power base and role in future climate geopolitics.
  • TRAUNER, Florian & Ariadna Ripoll Servent (2015) (Eds.) Policy Change in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice: How EU Institutions Matter. London: Routledge.
    category: Edited Book
    The EU plays an increasingly important role in issues such as the fight against organised crime and the management of migration flows, transforming the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ) into a priority of the EU’s political and legislative agenda. This book investigates whether institutional change - the gradual communitarisation of the AFSJ - has triggered policy change, and in doing so, explores the nature and direction of this policy change. By analysing the role of the EU’s institutions in a systematic, theory-informed and comparative way, it provides rich insights into the dynamics of EU decision-making in areas involving high stakes for human rights and civil liberties. Each chapter contains three sections examining: - the degree of policy change in the different AFSJ fields, ranging from immigration and counter-terrorism to data protection - the role of EU institutions in this process of change - a case study determining the mechanisms of change. The book will be of interest to practitioners, students and scholars of European politics and law, EU policy-making, security and migration studies, as well as institutional change.
  • ADAM, Ilke & DESCHOUWER, Kris (2015) "Nationalist parties and immigration in Flanders: From Volksunie to Spirit and N-VA," Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 42(8), 1290-1303.
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    This article contributes to the literature on the sub-state nationalist and regionalist parties (SNRPs) by investigating the policy positions in the immigration ambit taken by the Flemish nationalist party Volksunie, and by its successors after the party fell apart in 2001. We do so by analysing the party manifestos for all elections between 1978 and 2014. Beyond providing a detailed case study, the article has broader ambitions. The paper bridges the gap between the party literature and the literature on immigration and integration policies. It does so in two ways. First, it relies on a more nuanced categorisation of policy positions proposed by the immigration policy literature, which is absent in the party literature. Second, it draws explicit attention to the nation-building strategy of SNRPs as an intervening explanatory variable, mediating the influence of party competition and ideology.
  • D'AGOSTINO, Serena (2015) "Consolidated criteria for assessing intersectionality operationalisation in European equality policies: The case of Roma women," Journal of Diversity and Gender Studies, 2(3-4), 95-110.
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    no abstract available
  • OBERTHüR, Sebastian & GROEN, Lisanne (2015) "The effectiveness dimension of the EU's performance in international institutions: toward a more comprehensive assessment framework," Journal of Common Market Studies, 53(6), 1319-1335.
    category: Other Article (without peer-review system)
    In this article, we develop a comprehensive framework for assessing the effectiveness dimension of the EU's performance in international institutions, consisting of three elements: (1) the quality of the EU's policy objectives; (2) EU engagement in the negotiations, including its fit with the international constellation of power and interests; and (3) goal achievement. We apply this assessment framework to two cases with two phases each: (1) the negotiations on the 2010 Nagoya Protocol on genetic resources to the Convention on Biological Diversity and (2) the negotiations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change toward the 2009 Copenhagen and 2011 Durban climate summits. The analysis demonstrates that the assessment framework (1) facilitates a more complete and richer appreciation of EU effectiveness in international institutions than the established understanding of effectiveness as goal achievement and (2) allows us to start to systematically explore the interaction between the framework's three components.
  • CALUWAERTS, Didier & DESCHOUWER, Kris (2014) Building bridges across political divides: experiments on deliberative democracy in deeply divided Belgium, European Political Science Review, Vol. 6, no. 3, p 427 - 450
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    No Abstract.
  • Sanjay Jeram & ADAM, Ilke (2014) "Diversity and nationalism in the Basque Country and Flanders: Understanding immigrants as fellow minorities," National Identities, 17(3), 241-257.
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    Why have immigrant integration policies in the Basque Country and Flanders been framed according to multicultural principles? This paper offers an addendum to rationalist and institutionalist approaches, arguing that we cannot make sense of multicultural policies in these two cases without considering the interplay between historical narratives that undergird the nation and elite decision-making. Narratives of cultural oppression have been essential for nationalist mobilization in the Basque Country and Flanders. In turn, the choice of multiculturalism over assimilation by sub-state elites made sense because it fits with their understanding of the nation as an oppressed group.
  • OBERTHüR, Sebastian & Florian Rabitz (2014) "On the performance and leaderschip of the European Union in global environmental governance: the case of the Nagoya protocol," Journal of European Public Policy, 21(1), 39-57.
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    Analysing the European Union's (EU) role in the negotiations of the 2010 Nagoya Protocol on access and benefit sharing regarding genetic resources, this article argues for the integration of (1) the EU's policy objectives and (2) their achievement in the analysis of the EU's performance and leadership in international (environmental) negotiations. We first develop a conceptual and explanatory framework that highlights the inter-relationship between both aspects. We then establish that the EU pursued conservative policy objectives in the Nagoya process (becoming more moderate in 2006/2007) but was highly successful in achieving its goals. The explanatory analysis provides illustrative evidence of how the degree of ambition of the EU's policy objectives directly affects and indirectly frames goal achievement: while conservative objectives are easier to realize than ambitious ones, factors such as domestic legislation, internal interest homogeneity, universal norms and external policy making procedures may be especially important for achieving ambitious goals.
  • ADAM, Ilke (2013) Les entités fédérées belges et l'intégration des immigrés. Politiques publiques comparées. Bruxelles: Editions de l'Université de Bruxelles.
    category: Book
    No Abstract.
  • Thomas Gehring, OBERTHüR, Sebastian & Marc Mühleck (2013) "EU actorness in international institutions: why the EU is recognised as an actor in some international institutions, but not in others," Journal of Common Market Studies, 51, 849-865.
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    This article examines why the European Union (EU) is recognized as a relevant actor in some international institutions, but not in others. Drawing on theories of international institutions and corporate action, it develops a theoretical approach toward EU actorness that demonstrates under which conditions third parties gain an interest in recognizing this actor as a relevant party to international institutions and how the EU can become an actor in its own right. The EU is expected to be recognized as a relevant actor in an international institution if it has acquired action capability in the relevant governance area, while formal status plays an inferior role. This hypothesis is subsequently assessed for six international institutions that vary regarding the degree of EU action capability and the EU's formal status, including the WTO and IMF, FAO and WHO as well as two international environmental regimes. Empirical results confirm the fruitfulness of the theoretical approach.
  • ADAM, Ilke (2013) "Immigrant integration policies in the Belgian regions: Subs-state nationalism and policy divergence after Devolution," Regional and Federal Studies, 23(5), 547-569.
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    For almost a decade now, there has been a debate among scholars of regional and federal studies about how to explain policy evolution after devolution. Surprisingly, this literature has attached little importance to the policy impact of sub-state nationalism. This article assesses existent institutionalist and societal hypotheses in the case of immigrant integration policy divergence in Belgium after devolution. This empirical test shows that although several of these hypotheses yield valuable insights in explaining integration policy divergence in Belgium, they have difficulties in accounting for a striking feature of this policy divergence, i.e. the different interventionism regarding the cultural dimension of the integration process. This article argues that sub-state nationalism, and in particular the differing degrees of regional government involvement in sub-state nation building, provides explanatory insight into how policy frames diverge.
  • OBERTHüR, Sebastian, Knud Erik Jorgensen & SHAHIN, Jamal (2013) (Eds.) The Performance of the EU in International Institutions, London: Routledge, 176 p.
    category: Edited Book
    The Performance of the EU in International Institutions marks one of the first attempts to systematically analyse the subject. It focuses on the role of the EU in decision-making within international organizations and regimes as a major locus of global governance. The book unpacks the concept of EU performance into four core elements: effectiveness (goal achievement); efficiency (ratio between outputs accomplished and costs incurred); relevance (of the EU for its priority stakeholders); and financial/resource viability (the ability of the performing organization to raise the funds required). Based on the case studies herein, the findings presented in this book relate to the identified core elements of performance with a particular emphasis on the dimensions of 'effectiveness' and 'relevance'. Most notably, the EU appears, on balance and over the past two decades, to have become much more relevant for its member states when acting within international institutions. The book highlights four particular factors explaining EU performance in international institutions: the status of relevant EU legislation and policies, the legal framework conditions including the relevant changes that the Lisbon Treaty has brought about, domestic EU politics, and the international context.

Theoretical and Normative Reflections

  • SEVERS, Eline, CELIS, Karen & ERZEEL, Silvia (2016) 'Power, privilege and disadvantage: intersectionality theory and representation,' Politics, 36(4), 346-354.
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    This article critically reviews the extant literature on social group representation and clarifies the advantages of intersectionality theory for studying political representation. It argues that the merit of intersectionality theory can be found in its ontology of power. Intersectionality theory is founded on a relational conception of political power that locates the constitution of power relations within social interactions, such as political representation. As such, intersectionality theory pushes scholarship beyond studying representation inequalities – that are linked to presumably stable societal positions – to also consider the ways in which political representation (re)creates positions of privilege and disadvantage.
  • SEVERS, Eline, CELIS, Karen & Petra Meier (2015) 'The indirectness of political representation: a blessing or a concern? A study of the conceptions of members of the Flemish regional parliament,' Parliamentary Affairs, 68(3), 616-637.
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    This article situates itself within ongoing scholarly debates on the conditions of democratic representation. It, more precisely, posits traditional concerns for the ‘indirectness’ of political representation—that is the possibility for citizens’ alienation and exclusion from decision-making—against contemporary accounts that conceive of such ‘indirectness’ as quintessential to democracy; mobilising citizens’ judgement and, potentially, drawing them into the decision-making process and making it more inclusive. Juxtaposing these two theoretical accounts with the practice of representation, this article researches—based on 70 semi-structured interviews with members of the Flemish regional parliament—how representatives themselves conceive of representation and deal with its indirectness.
  • CALUWAERTS, Didier & DESCHOUWER, Kris (2014) Building bridges across political divides: experiments on deliberative democracy in deeply divided Belgium, European Political Science Review, Vol. 6, no. 3, p 427 - 450
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    No Abstract.
  • SEVERS, Eline & MATTELAER, Alexander (2014) A Crisis of Democratic Legitimacy? It’s about Legitimation, Stupid!, in Lepoivre, Marc & Stijn Verhelst (eds), The European Elections: What is at stake for the citizen? An analysis of the EU's legitimacy and policy challenges, Gent: Academia Press, p. 25-37
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    No Abstract.
  • DESCHOUWER, Kris (2011) 'Talking about democracy,' In: Axel Gosseries & Yannick Vanderborght (Eds.). Arguing about Justice. Essays for Philippe Van Parijs. Presses Universitaires de Louvain, pp. 159-167.
    category: Book Chapter
    not available
  • Dodeigne, Jérémy, Gramme, Pierre, Reuchamps, Min & SINARDET, Dave (2014) Beyond linguistic and party homogeneity: Determinants of Belgian MPs’ preferences on federalism and state reform', in Party Politics, Online First pre-publication.
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    no abstract
  • SINARDET, Dave & Bursens, Peter (2014) Democratic legitimacy in multilevel political systems. The role of politicization at the polity-wide level in the EU and Belgium' in Acta Politica. International Journal of Political Science, 48:3, p. 246-265
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    no abstract
  • SINARDET, Dave (2014) 'Institutioneel perpetuum mobile', in Samenleving en Politiek (themanummer: De zesde staatshervorming), 21:1, p. 1-3
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    no abstract
  • SINARDET, Dave, Reuchamps, Min & Dodeigne, Jérémy (2014) De communautaire breuklijn in België: kloof of spleetje?' in België 2014. Een politieke geschiedenis van morgen, Borgerhoff & Lamberigts, p. 275-300
    category: Book Chapter
    no abstract
  • SINARDET, Dave (2014) Consensusdemocratie in het federale België: wat, waarom en vooral waarheen?' in Guy Verhofstadt, Erwin Mortier, Bart Somers, Emmanuel Vandenbossche, Rolf Falter, Dave Sinardet & Paul De Grauwe (ed.) Een beter België. Een federale toekomst voor ons land, Antwerpen/Amsterdam: De Bezige Bij Antwerpen, p. 165-212
    category: Book Chapter
    nno abstract
  • Dandoy, Régis, SINARDET, Dave & Lefevere, Jonas (2013) Médias et fédéralisme. Analyse de la couverture médiatique lors des élections régionales de 2009' in Régis Dandoy, Geoffroy Matagne & Caroline Van Wynsberghe (ed.), Le fédéralisme belge. Enjeux institutionnels, acteurs socio-politiques et opinions publiques, Edition: Sciences Politiques (15), Louvain-La-Neuve: Academia/L’Harmattan, p. 179-204
    category: Book Chapter
    no abstract
  • Dodeigne, Jérémy (2013) 'L'avenir du fédéralisme en Belgique. Visions des parlementaires fédéraux et régionaux avant l'accord sur la sixième réforme de l’État' in La Revue Nouvelle, 68:6, p. 40-64
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    no abstract
  • SINARDET, Dave (2013) How Linguistically Divided Media Represent Linguistically Divisive Issues. Belgian Political TV-Debates on Brussels-Halle-Vilvoorde’ in Regional and Federal Studies (Special issue on ‘The Future of Belgian Federalism’), 23:3, p. 311-330
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    no abstract
  • SINARDET, Dave, Dodeigne, Jérémy & Reuchamps, Min (2013) Beyond the Myth of Unanimity. Opinions of Belgian MPs on Federalism and the Sixth Reform of the Belgian State' in Belgian Society and Politics. As Ever, in Between Elections, p. 71-83
    category: Book Chapter
    no abstract
  • SINARDET, Dave, Dodeigne, Jérémy & Reuchamps, Min (2013) Parlementsleden over het Belgische federalisme', in Samenleving en Politiek, 20:6, p. 4-20
    category: Other Article (without peer-review system)
    no abstract
  • SINARDET, Dave (2013) Woord vooraf' in Walter Zinzen, Mens, erger je! Pamflet., Kalmthout: Pelckmans, p. 7-12
    category: Book Chapter
    no abstract
  • SINARDET, Dave (2013) ‘Conflicten over identiteit en natie in België. Een geschiedenis’, in Conflicten (Studium Generale - Leerstoel Kinsbergen 2012-2013), Brussel: Academic and Scientific Publishers, p. 91-119
    category: Book Chapter
    no abstract
  • Van Dooren, Wouter & SINARDET, Dave (2013) ‘Small is beautiful ? Lessons from a decade of decentralisation in Antwerp', in Paul De Grauwe & Philippe Van Parijs, Must Brussels’s communes be merged ? The experiences of Antwerp, Berlin and Vienna (Re-Bel e-book 13),  Brussels: Rethinking Belgium / University Foundation, p. 6-26
    category: Book Chapter
    no abstract
  • Van Dooren, Wouter & SINARDET, Dave (2013) ‘Small is beautiful ? Leçons d'une décennie de décentralisation à Anvers.', in Paul De Grauwe & Philippe Van Parijs Faut-il fusionner les communes bruxelloises ?Les expériences d’Anvers, Vienne et Berlin (Re-Bel e-book 13),  Brussels: Rethinking Belgium / University Foundation, p. 6-32
    category: Book Chapter
    no abstract
  • Van Dooren, Wouter & SINARDET, Dave (2013) ‘Hoe kleiner, hoe beter? Lessen uit een decennium decentralisatie in Antwerpen', in Paul De Grauwe & Philippe Van Parijs, Moet men de Brusselse gemeenten fusioneren? Ervaringen uit Antwerpen, Wenen en Berlijn (Re-Bel e-book 13),  Brussels: Rethinking Belgium / University Foundation, p. 6-30
    category: Book Chapter
    no abstract
  • Devos, Carl & SINARDET, Dave (2012) ‘Governing without a Government: The Belgian experiment’, in Governance. An International Journal of Policy, Administrations and Institutions, 25: 2, p. 167-176   
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    no abstract
  • (2012) ‘België, Quo Vadis? Waarheen na de zesde staatshervorming?’, Antwerpen-Cambridge: Intersentia (CPRC-label), 356 p.
    category: Edited Book
    no abstract
  • Popelier, Patricia & SINARDET, Dave (2012) ‘Stabiliteit en instabiliteit in de Belgische federale staatsstructuur’ in Popelier Patricia, Sinardet Dave, Velaers Jan & Cantillon Bea (ed.), België, Quo Vadis? Waarheen na de zesde staatshervorming?, Antwerpen-Cambridge: Intersentia, p. 1-29
    category: Book Chapter
    no abstract
  • SINARDET, Dave (2012) ‘Is there a Belgian public sphere? What the case of a federal multilingual country can contribute to the debate on transnational public spheres. And vice versa’, in Michel Seymour & Alain-G. Gagnon (ed.), Multinational Federalism: Problems and Prospects, New-York: Palgrave MacMillan, p. 172-204
    category: Book Chapter
    no abstract
  • SINARDET, Dave (2012) ‘Federal Reform and Party Politics. The case of the Fifth Belgian State Reform’ in Arthur Benz & Felix Knuepling, Changing Federal Constitutions: Lessons from International Comparison, Opladen / Farmington Hills, MI: Barbara Budrich Publishers, p. 135-160
    category: Book Chapter
    no abstract
  • SINARDET, Dave & Morsink, Niels (2012) ‘La confiance entre élites de partis dans les fédérations consociatives. Le cas de la Belgique’ in Dimitrios Karmis & François Rocher (ed.), La dynamique confiance-méfiance dans les démocraties multinationales: le Canada sous un angle comparatif, Québec:  Presses de l’Université Laval, p. 162-189
    category: Book Chapter
    no abstract
  • SINARDET, Dave, Reuchamps, Min & Dodeigne, Jérémy (2012) ‘La circonscription électorale fédérale’ in Frédéric Bouhon & Min Reuchamps (ed.), Les systèmes électoraux de la Belgique, Brussel: Bruylant, 347-366 
    category: Book Chapter
    no abstract
  • SINARDET, Dave (2012)  Le projet de circonscription électorale fédérale, Bruxelles: Centre de recherche et d'information socio-politiques, 48 p. - (Courrier hebdomadaire du CRISP ; 2142)
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    no abstract
  • SINARDET, Dave (2012) ‘Le rôle des médias dans le conflit communautaire belge. Le traitement du dossier ‘Bruxelles-Hal-Vilvorde’ lors des débats politiques télévisés francophones et néerlandophones en Belgique’ in Julien Perrez & Min Reuchamps (ed.), Derrière les mots. Approches politiques et linguistiques des relations communautaires en Belgique, Edition : Sciences Politiques (12), Louvain-La-Neuve: Academia/L’Harmattan, p. 105-132
    category: Book Chapter
    no abstract
  • SINARDET, Dave (2012) Une idéé qui fait son chemin. Historique de la proposition de circonscription fédérale en Belgique', in Outre-Terre. Revue Européenne de géopolitique, 40, p. 262-276 
    category: Peer-reviewed article
    no abstract
  • SINARDET, Dave (2012) ‘Zwart, geel, groot. Het Vlaams-nationalisme na 1945’, in Reflector, 5 (maart 2012), p. 14-19
    category: Other Article (without peer-review system)
    no abstract
  • SINARDET, Dave (2012) ‘Une idée qui fait son chemin. Historique de la proposition de circonscription fédérale en Belgique’ in Laborderie, Vincent & Parent, Nicolas, Good Morning Belgium. La Belgique et la réforme de l’Etat par-delà les symboles, Bruxelles : Editions Mols, p. 65-103
    category: Book Chapter
    no abstract